From the "M² Memories in Materials" art practice collection plan launched at the end of 2017 to the final finalist list, the comprehensive upgrade project of Dongchang Cinema is also underway. The material and non-material materials left by the cinema are the spiritual umbilical cord between us and the past, connecting, transmitting, and transmitting to the new future – making Dongchang Cinema a new generation of cultural memory.
Dongchang Encyclopedia is a series of UNArt's research topics on Dongchang Cinema Materials. Through the review and interview of architecture, video, community and human history, the memories that have dissipated in the fog of time will be re-constructed.
Chinese name: 水磨石 English name: Terrazzo
Details: grain stone enamel proportioning decoration, copper wire edge banding
Uses: building floor, wall skirt, skirting, stair step, toilet partition
Features: moisture, dust, slip, wear, life and construction
Terrazzo (also known as high-gloss terrazzo, crystal magic stone) is a product that is ground after the gravel is mixed into ordinary Portland cement to make concrete products. Terrazzo floor is a kind of composite floor material with cement as the main raw material. Its low cost and good performance are widely used in large-area public buildings. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the use of terrazzo in public buildings exceeded 6 billion square meters. At that time, the publicity of schools, hospitals, stations, shops and other public places was indispensable to the shadow of terrazzo. The terrazzo and the green wall skirt became the same as the growth of a generation. Memory that does not go. The biggest advantage of the terrazzo floor is that it is protected from moisture. In March, the southern warm-up weather can maintain a very dry ground. Therefore, Dongchang Cinema chose the floor of this material at that time.
The color, fancy, compartment, composition and texture of the terrazzo can vary with the needs of the architectural space function and psychological effects. It has elegant and generous artistic decoration effects and unique artistic expression. For example: Dongchang Cinema as a public cultural venue The floor of the hall is made of gray main tone terrazzo material, which is simple and divided, giving the space a quiet functional tone. The traditional terrazzo monolith area is 1.5 meters square is the limit, it is difficult to do more; sanding must be cooled with a large amount of water, the problem of sewage is very troublesome; the use of Portland cement as the cement material, after long-term use, the cement body Wear and depression, protruding aggregates, affecting the aesthetics. The new terrazzo uses epoxy to bond the aggregate, which is easy to lay and environmentally friendly.
In the old buildings of Shanghai in the 1920s and 1930s, there were many famous terrazzo floors. The white stones were used as aggregates, and the colors such as gray, yellow, red and green were the memories of the times. The ground of the Shanghai Exhibition Hall (China-Soviet Friendship Building) is also made of terrazzo, which is as smooth as a mirror.
Terrazzo originated in the Roman era. It is well known that Italy is rich in stone and has rich mineral resources. Therefore, the world's most advanced craftsmanship and the most popular color textures are also from Italy. The Francavilla Palace in Sicily, Italy, has an ancient and long history. The terrazzo first entered China in the mid-nineteenth century. The terrazzo was used extensively in the churches built by the missionaries in the spread of Christianity and Catholicism in China.
About the ground production of Dongchang Cinema: It is relatively backward in the early stage of liberation. It is basically hand-made blank, rough grinding machine for Yuanpan machine, fine grinding and polishing of grinding machine. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, some reforms were carried out, such as vibrating press-forming blanks, hydraulic machine blanks, small-disc rough grinding, fine grinding, and cutting machine trimming. According to the time, the terrazzo floor of Dongchang Cinema coincides with this period, and it may be made in this way.
After the liberation of our country, terrazzo production has established some production plants in major cities. In the 1980s, China introduced some advanced terrazzo processing machinery suitable for national conditions. After studying its characteristics, the domestically designed and manufactured YP200-6 type blanking machine and 6 continuous grinding machines and other similar machines were available for China. The medium-sized terrazzo company provides domestically produced production equipment. With the improvement of mechanization, the development of the terrazzo industry has been technically guaranteed.
Beginning in the 1980s, many families in China began to use water grindstones as countertops for floors, sinks, cabinets, table tops, and table tennis tables. Terrazzo is also used in public places, including cinemas, hospitals, schools, libraries, public toilets, parks, etc.