M·M² Memories in Materials | Dongchang Encyclopedia : 03. Tile

Matters of Materials in Memories

From the "M² Memories in Materials" art practice collection plan launched at the end of 2017 to the final finalist list, the comprehensive upgrade project of Dongchang Cinema is also underway. The material and non-material materials left by the cinema are the spiritual umbilical cord between us and the past, connecting, transmitting, and transmitting to the new future – making Dongchang Cinema a new generation of cultural memory.

Dongchang Encyclopedia is a series of UNArt's research topics on Dongchang Cinema Materials. Through the review and interview of architecture, video, community and human history, the memories that have dissipated in the fog of time will be re-constructed.


Chinese name: 陶土瓦  English name: Clay tile
Specification: 400mm*270mm*20mm
Details: The tiles are printed with revitalized brick factories and charts
Uses: Roofing waterproof material
Features: The roof has waterproof and windproof features, and the appearance of the building is decorated to make the building colorful, heat insulation, soundproof and noiseproof.

The traditional red tiles and blue tiles are fired from weathered and aged yellow loess compacts, belonging to earthenware. The clay tile is made from clay and other synthetic materials, dried by wet embryos and then fired at high temperature. Some red tiles are now made of high-aluminum materials similar to refractory materials such as clay, coke gems, feldspars, and a little iron oxide powder if dark red is required. The quality is close to that of fine ceramics and the strength is high.

Features: The roof has waterproof and windproof features, and the appearance of the building is decorated to make the building colorful, heat insulation, soundproof and noiseproof.

According to the text inference on the tile surface and the inference of the production time, the Dongchang Cinema red clay tile may be produced from the Kunshan City, Jiangsu Province, Zhenxing Brick and Tile Factory.

Tile, the ancient name, appeared earlier, far in the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century to 771 BC) can be produced. Slabs, shingles and ridge tiles have been found in the sites of the Western Zhou Dynasty. The invention of the tile solves the problem of waterproofing the roof and is a great advancement in the construction. During the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC), Qingwa gradually promoted its use and found semi-circular and round watts (the head of Jane). During the Warring States period, the production of slabs, shingles and ridge tiles began to be mass-produced. The function of the water-splitting was improved, and the decorative patterns were also rich. There were more than 20 kinds of decorative patterns. The warring States under the Yan County, Hebei Province, unearthed the pattern of large tiles, indicating that the tile technology at that time has reached a considerable level.

Three major periods

The first important period - the Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC to 22 AD) was the first important period for the development of China's brick and tile industry.
After Qin Shihuang unified China, he built a palace, built a palace, built a tomb, built the Great Wall, and burned and applied a large number of bricks. It expresses the high wisdom and perseverance of the working people of ancient China and also reflects the outstanding achievements in the construction materials at that time. In the Han Dynasty, the masonry and archival structure developed. At this time, the brick and tile industry was unprecedented and gradually became an independent handicraft industry. "Qin Brick Hanwa" got its name.

The second important period - the period of the Tang and Tang Dynasties (581-907 AD) was the second important period for the development of China's brick and tile industry.
During this period, the tile technology has made a breakthrough. When you open the emperor, you can use green porcelain as the glass, and then promote it, gradually forming glazed tiles, applied to the palace building. Gray tiles, black tiles and glazed tiles have become three important roofing materials. In the Tang Dynasty, the formula and process of glass glazes have made significant progress, resulting in the yellow, green and green "Tang Sancai" which is still famous in the world.

The third important period - the Ming and Qing Dynasties (AD 1368-1911) was the third important period for the development of China's brick and tile industry.
Song Yingxing, published in the 10th year of Ming Chongzhen (AD 1637), is the book of Tiangong Kaiwu, an important scientific and technical document of the Ming Dynasty. This book is divided into three volumes and eighteen volumes. The seventh volume of Tao Shu, once again scientifically summed up the experience of burning bricks, describes the raw materials, molding, drying and roasting technologies. Before 1840, the brick and tile industry in the Qing Dynasty was largely influenced by the traditional crafts of the Ming Dynasty.

After the Opium War, due to the brutal rule and oppression of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic capitalism, as well as the extreme imbalances in the development of China's economy, politics, and science and technology, the brick and tile industry presented a complex phenomenon. On the one hand, the mechanism bricks rose in the big cities and developed rapidly. On the other hand, the traditional brick and tile crafts were devastated, the kiln factories in various places collapsed, and the ancient technology and art were gradually lost.

It was not until the birth of New China that the brick and tile industry gained new life and great development. As an important branch of the building materials industry, the brick and tile industry has undergone earth-shaking changes.

Project Open Call for Creative Proposals: "M²" 2017.11.12-12.12
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